Back to previouse page Sevastopol history : Đity foundation


         Heavy and long struggle of Russia for an output to the Black Sea successfully was finished; as a result of war with Turkey 1768-1774 years. Was signing Kuchuk - Kainardzhiysky treaty, on which Crimean khanate was announced independent from Turkey and passed under protection Russia. Commander by Russian army in Crimea A. V. Suvorov has appreciated war-strategic importance of perfect bays, on which coast in five years the construction of city and port will begin. In 1778 it has placed at Ahtiar bay forces. City foundation The commander has stated belief, what exactly here is necessary to create base of military fleet, which will ensure safety Southern sea boundaries of Russia. " To Similar harbour ", wrote A. V. Suvorov, " not only at local peninsula, but also on all the black sea other will not be, where the fleet is kept also employees on it better more convenient and quieter are placed could". By the manifest from April 8, 1783, Crimea, Taman and right-bank of Kuban were attached to Russia. With liquidation of Crimean khanate, Turkey has lost base of the aggression in Northern Black Sea coast. The victory of Russia in war has created objective the preconditions for amplification struggle against turkish dominion of the peoples of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia and other countries.

         Fregates "Brave" and "Cautious" were the first Russian ships which have stayed on wintering in Ahtiar harbours per 1782/83. In the spring 1783 to these coast the whole squadron under commander of the vice-admiral F. A. Klokachev, one of heroes has come Chesma battle. The ships have thrown of an anchor in a bay later named as Southern. Here they have appeared, reliably protected, from gales and storm. The Russian seamen have seen on a coast covered of shortish wood and bush, small hamlet, sticking to breakage. A name of hamlet - Ak-Yar (Aht-Yar) to underlie in a basis of the name of a bay, and then and city, constructed on its coast. Seamen, fort's peasants from different Russian provinces, civilian workmans - inhabitants, of next, Balaclava - become the first builders of the future base of black Sea fleet. June 3 (June 14 on new style) 1783 on Western coast of a Southern bay were incorporated of the first stone construction of city: the house for new commander of Black Sea Navy F. F. Mekenzy, chapel, smithy and wooden quay, that, which have named later as Grafskaya. This date Also has become birthday of Sevastopol. The construction was supervised by the chief of a staff of a squadron a flag - captain D. N. Seniavin, subsequently admiral, outstanding naval commander. By the decree from February 10, 1784. Ahtiar, city - fortress at the Black sea, have named by Sevastopol. The high sense of this name to it should be justified. And it has justified it. By were born as naval base, Sevastopol for ever has connected to fate of Black Sea fleet. F.F. UshakovFrom its harbours there left in campaigns the military ships, here they came back with a victory. During russian-turkish war 1787-1791 years a squadron under commanding F. F. Ushakov crashed Superior forces of turkish fleet at an island Fidonici, has broken of the opponent in Kerch strait, at Tendeovskaya plate, and then at cape Kalicaria. The contemporaries marked, that military art sailor of the Black Sea Fleet, not connected with dogmas of the past, surpassed battle skill of seamen of other fleet. The admiral F. F. Ushakov, in 1790 headed Black Sea fleet, fairly named " naval Suvorov ": he did not know defeats. " Rendering due outstanding merits naval commander and to the remarkable traditions, incorporated by him. These awards the military seamen, especially exceled in sea received fights and battles. The name of the glorified admiral is carried with one of the central areas of Sevastopol. Ushakov's beam named the picturesque district behind city refers to as, where in XVIII century in the order F. F. Ushakov the large garden was broken, the place for national strolls is allocated. In 1804 the Russian government officially has announced Sevastopol main military by port by the Black sea. Since 1805 main commander of black Sea fleet and its ports was nominated simultaneously as governor cities of Sevastopol and Nikolaev. In campaigns and buttles mature the young Russian military fleet, its feats was fated to remain in centuries.